Journal article

A Modular and Adjustable Ptosis Crutch as a non-Ssurgical, low cost solution for elevating the upper eyelid in Myasthenia Gravis

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Publication Details

Author list: Findlay M, Heckmann J, Sivarasu S.

Publisher: Ergonomics Society of South Africa, Department of human Kinetics & Ergonomics Rhodes University P.O. Box 94 Grahamstown, 6140

Publication year: 2016

Journal: Ergonomics SA

Volume number: 28

Issue number: 2

Start page: 49

End page: 60

Total number of pages: 12

ISSN: 1010-2728


Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction. MG is characterised by the fatigable weakness of skeletal muscles, commonly affecting the eye and facial muscles. Africans with MG, particularly juveniles, are more likely to develop treatment-resistance of their ocular muscles, including severe blepharoptosis. Blepharoptosis, or ptosis, describes the condition of a drooping upper eyelid(s). Surgical correction of ptosis is often contraindicated in MG patients. In these cases, a non-surgical solution to elevate the ptotic eyelid above the visual axis is required.


To design a ptosis crutch to elevate the ptotic eyelid(s) of MG patients. The crutch should be low cost, modular and adjustable in nature.


A bottom-up approach was followed for the design of the ptosis crutch. The requirements were defined according to patient, clinician and designer specifications. It …


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Last updated on 2020-09-09 at 17:11